The structure and stability of

Abstract
The main characteristics of ball lightning are well established. They include its general appearance (shape, size range, brightness, etc.), its peculiar motion and, less satisfactorily, its energy content. A remarkably consistent picture emerges from the thousands of detailed descriptions which are now available. There is, however, no such consistency within the various hypotheses that are suggests to elucidate ball lightning. the sole thing most of them share is a capability to elucidate a couple of aspects of the phenomenon at the expense of physically impossible requirements in other areas. If one is to simply accept that one phenomenon is being described altogether these observations, it seems clear that ball lightning is, at the very least, an electrical and chemical phenomenon; and a number of other branches of both disciplines seem to be involved. High humidities are nearly always implied and it’s known that the behaviour of strong electrolytes in saturated water vapor can’t be properly modelled thermodynamically. An approximate way of circumventing this problem is developed. It allows a radical , if only approximate, thermodynamic analysis to be undertaken From this, phenomena that specify the structure and stability of ball lightning are predictable. They arise quite naturally by considering the character , energetics and fate of ions escaping from a hot air plasma into the cool, high humidity environment of electrically charged air. The model resulting is as follows. A central plasma core is surrounded by a coo er, intermediate zone, during which recombination of most or all of the high-energy ions takes place. Further out may be a zone during which temperatures are low enough for any ions present to become extensively hydrated. Hydrated ions also can form spontaneously within the inner, hotter, parts of this hydration zone. Near the surface of the ball may be a region, quite essential to the model, during which thermochemical refrigeration can happen . In a longtime ball, energy is supplied not only by electric fields and, possibly, electromagnetic fields, but also by the assembly of aqua fortis from nitrogen and oxygen and by the hydration of the ions. it’s shown that, if NO-2 and H3O+ ions become hydrated by quite about five water molecules before they will combine at the sting of the ball, the reaction are going to be endothermic and may refrigerate its surface. The ball can thus be considered as a thermochemical apparatus powered by the electrical field of a thunder storm. The surface refrigeration allows the condensation of water in quantities sufficient to counteract the buoyancy of the recent plasma. The in-flow of N2 and O2 produces both nitrous and nitric acids, the latter being dissolved within the water droplets. The flow of gas inwards past these droplets (and past those condensed around an more than H3O+ ions) provides an efficient physical phenomenon for the ball which appears sufficient to elucidate its shape and mechanical stability. Clearly explanations for the surface coolness and regularly reported cloudiness are provided at an equivalent time. All the well documented properties (amounting to over 20 distinct properties in total) are often explained during a consistent manner within the framework of the model.  แทงบอลด้วยเงินสด

Footnotes
This text was harvested from a scanned image of the first document using optical character recognition (OCR) software. As such, it’s going to contain errors. Please contact the Royal Society if you discover a mistake you’d wish to see corrected. Mathematical notations produced through Infty OCR.

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